Before they were done, they had killed 12 fellow students, one teacher, and themselves Lin. Understandably, most people rushed out in terror, but some put their lives in jeopardy to save others. One teacher, named Dave Sanders, helped students and teachers to safety, and he was shot more than once for his efforts.
Rachels states that it is not a theory of ethics but rather a theory of human psychology. Psychological Egoism has extreme consequences for human morality.
If Psychological Egoism were true, then our entire society would consist of selfish individuals only interested in their own welfare; it would be pointless to talk about what people ought to do. Ethical Egoism in contrast claims that each person ought to pursue his or her own self-interest exclusively Rachels The main difference between the two is that Psychological Egoism makes a claim about the way things are, and Ethical Egoism makes a claim about how things ought to be.
Psychological Egoism involves aspects of human nature, whereas Ethical Egoism involves morality. One argument for Psychological Egoism is that we always do what we most want to do.
Regardless of whether or not someone is acting unselfish or self-interested, they act in a way that is most like what they want to do. Let us consider an act of benevolence. If someone was to perform this act of kindness, they would be doing it out of their own desire.
Thus, this makes the act self-interested.
It can be concluded that this can be said about any act of kindness. So, Psychological Egoism must be true. A flaw in this argument is that sometimes we do things not because we want to but when we feel we ought to do them.
We may have a strong desire to break a promise, but we do not because we feel obligated to keep it. This shows that what we want most is to break the promise, but we keep it anyways, thus the argument is flawed. A second flaw is that when you act out of desire, you are not always acting in self-interest.
To assess if something is self-interested, we have to know what kind of desire the issue is based on. If your actions are based on helping someone else, then you are acting altruistically, not self-interested. The other argument for Psychological Egoism is that we do what makes us feel good.
Acting unselfishly makes people feel good about themselves. This shows us that when people act unselfishly, there is usually a deeper motive to their actions.
Rachels states that this is called the strategy of reinterpreting motives Unselfish behavior is actually connected to some form of benefit for the person who does it.
Many so-called unselfish acts are at their roots, selfish in nature because they promoteEthical egoism is a normative theory which means it states how we ought to act.
There are two types of ethical egoism; individual ethical egoism and universal ethical egoism. I will be referring to universal ethical egoism in the rest of the paper. A fourth argument against ethical egoism is just that: ethical egoism does not count as a moral theory.
One might set various constraints on a theory's being a moral theory. Many of these constraints are met by ethical egoism — the formal constraints, for example, that moral claims must be prescriptive and universalizable.
Ethical egoism is not the only theory that is criticized as inconsistent and self-contradictory. Many people argue that business as an enterprise is antithetical to ethics.
These critics argue "that business is a 'game,' and hence the ordinary constraints of morality do not apply, and that one cannot survive in business if one is too 'ethical. In this essay I will discuss how it is possible to reconcile egoism with morality and why we should be moral due to our psychological egoism.
These discussion points include; the social contract, importance of morals not governed and the prisoner’s dilemma theory. Ethical Egoism and Psychological Egoism. According to ethical egoism, a person’s primary obligation is to promote his/her own self-interest.
According to this view, whether an act is obligatory depends on whether it leads to one’s own greatest good, not on whether it leads to society’s greatest good. Ethical egoism is unacceptably arbitrary, ethical egoism does not count as a moral theory.
Ethical egoism theory says that we split the world up into two categories of people, ourselves and others and we regard the first group “ourselves” as more important than the interests of the second group “other”.